Bowles DNA Project
Norman English occupied Wales in 1070 but they held it for many
years by force of arms against a constant threat from the
Welsh. Their stronghold was at Chepstow Castle which was held
by a succession of Earls whose knights occupied smaller castles in
the surrounding areas to maintain local order and to give early
warning of any Welsh uprising.
Bowles first appear on record in this area in 1382 when Sir Thomas Bowles,
Knight is mentioned as a jurist at an inquisition at Magor. At
that time he was of Porth Sgiwed (Portskewett near Caldicot) which
doesn't seem to have been the site of a castle.
That would imply that at that time he was a knight of nearby Caldicot
Castle which at that time was held by King Richard II's uncle Thomas
of Woodstock. Being a knight in this period wasn't just an
honorary title. In the 1380's the defences of Caldicot were
strengthened including the addition of a new gatehouse and
This story actually begins with the St Maur family who held Penhow Castle for the Earl at Chepstow Castle from at least 1129. ref. ref. By 1382 the younger lines of the St Maur family had moved on to Wiltshire (there are also definite linkages between these Bowles in Monmouthshire and The Bowles of Wiltshire) where they would become the powerful Seymour family. The senior line at Penhow found itself with no male heir but the lone daughter, Isabella Seymour, had married John Bowles bringing with her Penhow Castle and a vast increase in the family's fortunes. At that time Chepstow Castle was held by Margaret, Duchess of Norfolk, daughter and sole heir of Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk and the eldest son of King Edward I.
Excerpt from the Penhow Castle page on the Castles of Wales page: The Bowles of Penhow adopted the arms of the Seymour family, the simple paired wings of the hunting lure, and in 1438 Thomas Bowles, John's grandson, led a small force of men from Penhow all the way to Berwick-upon-Tweed on the Scottish border to assist in the siege of the town. The siege was part of the complicated politics of the War of the Roses. For his services, Thomas Bowels was knighted by the Duke of Gloucester and returned to Penhow with a substantial pension. He then married Maud, daughter of Sir Thomas Morgan of nearby Pencoed Castle. His arms, the paired wings, and hers, the griffin or dragon of the Morgans, are carved in stone on the outside of one of the windows of the great hall. Sir Thomas's son produced an only daughter, Maria, who married Sir George Somerset, brother of the 2nd earl of Worcester, Lord of Raglan Castle. This grand estate in Wales then passed out of the Bowles family. ref. However, the younger male lines continue on in the area even today. The Bowles spelling actually became common only in later years. In these earlier records Bouliers, Bowlays, Bollys etc. are seen. One of the consistent themes here is that these Bowles were knights of royal households.
Some SpeculationI prefer evidence to speculation but there is so little transcribed matter available for this period and from central Canada here I have no chance to do the research with the original documents in the archives of Britain and Wales so the following possibility may never be considered unless I allow myself some speculation here. In the 1200's two de Buelles brothers held very high positions as household knights of Henry III. They were likely members of the de Buelles family of Bedfordshire who were descendants of a Norman Lord, Roger de Busli (prononunced Booly), who had accompanied William the Conqueror to England in 1066 and who I believe was an ancestor of many of today's Bowles. In 1147 a Hugh de Busli was one of Hugh de Buron’s knights in Cotgrave, Notts. In 1233 Henry III appointed his knight William de Boeles to have the custody and the income of the castles of Montgomery and Sneath on the Welsh border. Montgomery Castle was one of the line of castles which started with Chepstow Castle and ran along the Welsh Marches, a disputed area along the Wales/England border. The Welsh Lord Llewellyn the Great did attack the this line of defences in 1233 but had to withdraw. William de Boelles was then granted the custody and defense of La Reole castle (not La Rochelle as appears in some references) in Bordeaux during a failed attempt by Henry to re-occupy his father’s holdings in Poitou. In 1241 Hugh de Boelles (William's brother) appears in the close and pipe rolls as serving the King in Wales. In 1243 an Alda de Boelles was appointed Damsel of the Queen. There was an Alda de Boelles, the daughter of Hugh de Beauchamp of Eaton Soken, Bedfordshire and wife of Henry de Bueles of Bedfordshire around 1200 but I can't prove a connection between her and this one although I suspect she would be her daughter or niece. William de Boelles was awarded the Manor of Wykeham (Wickham), co. Suffolk for life in December 1241. In July 1243 William was appointed the Seneschal and custodian of Gascony which position he held until 1247. In 1248 the Queen’s Damsel Alda de Boelles was granted the Manor of Bulewell (Bulwell, Nottinghamshire) but died a few years later. In 1252 William de Boelles was killed while on the King's service. In 1253 Hugh de Boelles and another William de Boelles (Jr.?) went to Gascony on the King’s service. William was put in charge of the King’s castles of Morgas and ‘la Crabe’. The Abbot of Shrewsbury was instructed to protect William’s property in his absence which implies that his property was in Shropshire. In 1257 a Richard de Bueles was guaranteed protection of his lands while he was on the King’s son Edward’s service in Wales. This story continues like this well into the late 1300's with a Philip de Boeles, Simon de Bueweles (granted land for his services to the Crown), Daniel de Boeles, Sir Hugh de Buholes, Peter de Boeles (a tenant in chief in Bedfordshire in 1274 so his land was held directly from the king), Henry de Boeles, a knight of Hugh de Plessis, was awarded land in Wiltshire in 1281 for life with reversion to the Crown, a Robert de Boweles, a John Bole was holding Camrose Castle in Pembrokeshire, Wales in 1287 (Bole is from a later transcription and likely not the original spelling of the name), a Letter of Respite of Debts was issued to the Sheriff of Bedfordshire for a John de Boeles when he set out for Scotland with King Edward I‘s army, in 1300 a John de Boeles was one of Hugh le Despenser's knights, in 1303 he served with the Prince of Wales and in 1308 he is mentioned as being of Gravenhurst, Bedfordshire and many more such references. They usually appear with the surnames as spelled above but sometimes as Bowles probably due to transcribers trying to be overly helpful by modernizing the names in the old documents for the benefit of modern researchers. With a military tradition at such a high level the de Boeles of Bedfordshire family would be a likely source for Sir Thomas Bowles of Portskewett another knight of a royal household.
The Bowles of Penhow Family TreeSir Thomas Bowles, Knight of Porth Sqiwed b. ~ 1330 d. aft. 1382 1. John Bowles, Lord of Porth Sgiwed (Portskewett near Caldicot) b. ~ 1370 d. aft 1423 m. Isabella Seymour (b. ~ 1370; father: Roger Seymour (St. Maur)) 1.1 Ralph Bowles (of Monmouthshire) b. ~ 1400 d. aft. 1439 m. Joan 1.1.1 Sir Thomas Bowles, Knight of Pen-hw (Penhow) , Monmouthshire b. ~ 1430 d. 1511 (a Baron of the Exchequer) m. Mawd Morgan (b. ~ 1470; father: Sir Thomas ap Morgan of Pen-coed, Llanfarthin) 220.127.116.11 Jane Bowles b. ~ 1470 d. aft. 1511 m.(1) Edmund Vanne of Glamorganshire, Wales children: William, Thomas, Jane, Alice, Lewys, John, Mary Vanne m.(2) Lewys ap Thomas child: Thomas Lewis 18.104.22.168 Margred Bowles b. ~ 1470 m. John Moore children: Anne, Richard, Florence Moore 22.214.171.124 Sir Thomas Bowles, Knight b. ~ 1470 d. aft 1511 m.(1) Alice Wogan (Henry) of Prendergast, Pembrokeshire, Wales m.(2) Jane Vaughan of Monmouthshire 126.96.36.199.1 Mawd (Maria) Bowles b. ~ 1500 of Pen-hw, Monmouthshire m. Sir George Somerset, Knight 188.8.131.52 Joan (Jane the younger) Bowles b. ~ 1500 d. aft. 1562 m. Sir Edward Aston, Knight of Tixall, co. Staffordshire 184.108.40.206.1 Giles Aston (must have d. young) 220.127.116.11.2 Sir Walter Aston b. Oct. 8, 1530 Tixall, co. Staffordshire (son and heir) m. Elizabeth Leveson bef. Apr. 8, 1545 (James, a London merchant; Margaret Offley of Chester) 18.104.22.168.2.1 Sir Edward Aston of Tixall, co. Staff. and Wanlip, co. Leicester m. Anne Lucy (Sir Thomas of Charlecote, co. Warwick) (MP for Staffordshire 1553, knighted by Duke of Norfolk after the Siege of Leith, Sheriff of Staffordshire 1570-71, 1580-81) 22.214.171.124.2.1.1 Sir Walter Aston (1st Lord Aston of Forfar) 126.96.36.199.2.1.2 Edward Aston of the Jewel Office m. Anne Sadleir 188.8.131.52.2.1.3 Thomas Aston of the Inner Temple 184.108.40.206.2.1.4 Joyce Aston m. Sir Martin Culpepper of Deane, co. Oxford Sir Edward d. Apr. 2, 1589 220.127.116.11.2.2 several more children (Cracrofts Peerage: Aston of Forfar) 18.104.22.168.3 Leonard Aston 22.214.171.124.4 Anthony Aston 126.96.36.199.5 Katherine Aston m. Sir William Gesley 188.8.131.52.6 Mary Aston m. Sir Simon Harcourt 184.108.40.206.7 Anne Aston 220.127.116.11.8 Frances Needham Aston Joan d. Sept. 22, 1562 Sir Edward d. ~ 1568 18.104.22.168 Walter Bowles of Matharn, Monmouthshire b. ~ 1500 m. ? (Walter Boules of Westfield, Pembrokeshire in 1536 ref) 22.214.171.124.1 Margred (Margaret) Bowles b. ~ 1526 m. Roger Martin of Long Melford, Suffolk Roger bur. Apr. 16, 1578 Long Melford Margred bur. Aug. 7, 1615 126.96.36.199.1 possibly Thomas Bowles (Lewis Bowles mentions his nephew Thomas Bowles in his Will; if a full nephew, he would only fit here) Walter d. aft. 1535 188.8.131.52 Lewys Bowles b. ~ 1500 m. (1) ? m. (2) Elsbeth (Elizabeth) Bowen of Fishweir, Sain Hilari, Glamorganshire, Wales 184.108.40.206.1 Thomas Bowles (of Pen-hw and Middle Temple, London) b. ~ 1545 d. 1580 (Will dated Aug. 27, 1580; proven Feb. 1, 1581; no children mentioned) 220.127.116.11.2 Catrin Bowles b. ~ 1530 d. aft. 1580 18.104.22.168.3 Margred Bowles b. ~ 1530 m. Haberdeyn d. aft. 1580 22.214.171.124.4 Jane Bowles b. ~ 1530 d. aft. 1580 m. Edmond Maddock of Todenham, Glos., Gent. children: Angelina, Catherine, Hester Lewis d. 1552 (Will dated Jan. 18, 1551, Proven May 2, 1552) text (note: his Will refers to a nephew Thomas Bowles but otherwise we have no record of him; possibly that was his brother Walter's son as his eldest brother Sir Thomas was known to have had no male heir) Elizabeth m.(2) Richard Batharne ca. 1553 1. Roger Batharne b. ca. 1555 2. Anne Batharne Richard d. bef. 1580 126.96.36.199 Alice Bowles b. ~ 1500 unm. in 1580 d. aft. 1580 Thomas Bowles d. 1511 (Will dated Oct. 1511, proved Dec. 1511) text Primary References: